Entered in s. The XXIst, our company is adapting to a rapid transformation of the commanding models in the previous century, is situated immersed in a transition towards a new paradigm informacional1. These changes affect every citizen in the collective and private areas, and blur the borders that exist between them putting in crisis limits of the industrial company. We are re-formulating how to relate while we re-form the way of learning, working and interacting with the company that surrounds us, and with them there appears the need to restate the physical existing spaces to adapt them to a changeable, dynamic and indefinite reality. There have to be rethought our spaces of relation, the public and private spaces, of leisure and of work, and it is in the working space where we find the synthesis of the changes through that we live.
The globalization, product of the company network, is overcoming the resistances of the former configurations of the States-nations to turn into an economic, technological, political, social and cultural process without return, Saskia Sassen2. This process allows to re-formulate the dynamics of hierarchy on a large scale that govern the conditions both to internal level and to level of the international connections, and to favor the appearance of relations in the subnational scale (the global cities) with the supranational ones (the global markets). This structure believes new networks that open a new type of particular relations and of convenience between the subnational thing and the supranational thing leading to locating the global thing and to including the local thing. The gradual denationalization generates new actors not natives and they believe new institutions that redistribute his areas of influence, generating fights to get hold of this one.
The subnational scale has the global city at the maximum representative and from her one gives service to all the processes of the global economy, turning in non-strategic and indispensably, Saskia Sassen3. Every global city places inside a network of multiple global circuits that overcome the limits of the State – nation locating them in several cross-border geografías. The actors of the subnational and supranational scales try to jump or to modify the bureaucratic structures of the State – nation based on a closed and exclusive immersed system in an indispensable phase of adjustment..
It is the specificity of the global thing what turns in globally the city, leaving on the second plane his historical importance as world city and allowing that cities should appear, without a historical past, of which his potentials take advantage to turn in new non-strategic global. The capacity of every city to offer his specificity to the structures of the global economy allows them to compete inside the network of global cities, and in this respect the local identity in the areas geographically, economically, technologically, socially or culturally, is a factor diferenciador and positively that reinforces them.
The global cities are the territories where the processes of globalization acquire a concrete and located character, are the physical places where there center the operations of the economy of agglomeration, his contradictions and conflicts. In them the economic power is centralized by a few new elites of transnational professionals, who form the core of the global companies, but also close to the population from the global diasporas and the migratory networks that serve them in conditions of precariousness and marginality. The workers’ global class migrantes disadvantaged they are the forgotten and indispensable actors of the globalization, Saskia Sassen4. At the same time, more included there are the managerial markets, his operations and the big companies, bigger it is the complexity and more difficult they are the strategies that these need for his management. This provokes the demand of the most specialized new services, tied to this complexity. Then, the global city generates a managerial new fabric linked to giving service to the demands located of the globalization. A managerial fabric that is the engine of the change in the way of working and that transforms, at the same time, the working space.
The political – economic potential that the global cities develop they turn them in generating of new managerial fabrics and of communities formed to take advantage of the strategies and needs of the global network. These new communities are inserted in the territory turning into strategic place, into a space of centralidad that exceeds the local area to turn in transnational. The global cities need these new local companies, and with it his new citizens with needs capable of transforming them. They are civil that work, live and enjoy the city breaking the old models to adapt it to a company on the other hand constant, of hypermobility, of specialization and transformation of the offer and demand, of evolution of the knowledge with new capacities of global communication and with forms of work in network where one neutralizes the territory, the borders and the time.
New citizens grow in an immersed company in the transformation towards a new paradigm, that in turn, it transforms the way of communicating, to relate and the way of working. And it is in the new ways of understanding the work and his space, where we can find many of the characteristics of the transition towards this new paradigm.
New working space in the company network.
In the decade of the nineties it was started introducing at how and where being employed. There began the transformation of the old structures of work, rigid and hierarchic of the Taylorism5, destined to the production in mass, for new ways of working and of creating values appeared with the economic summit generated by the rapid technological advances and Internet.
Silicon Valley6 was the principal territory where they gave to themselves the characteristics for the transformation and evolution of the forms of work under the new paradigm informacional, Chris Benner7. The place where they started breaking the rigid rules of the industrial paradigm in the world of the work, to incorporate the flex work7.1 for the works of more added value in the competitive dynamics of the industries of the knowledge. While they were provoking the appearance of the flex employment7.2 and his precarización for the works of less qualified but absolutely indispensable for the global economy.
The companies of the global economy, especially the related ones to Internet, are restructured concerning the labor markets and to the way of producing. The organization interferes network, decentralizing his organization, and re-forming the processing of information to increase the productivity and to adapt it to the needs of a changeable environment and of hypermobility. The works become more flexible and based on projects inside collaborative networks. This stimulates the entrepreneurship that they base his competitive capacity on the work on network, on a major adaptability to the demands of the global market, and a reconfiguration of the equipments according to his needs. These companies use the innovation as source of growth in the economy informacional, with a development opened and shared of ideas, which separates them from the companies of the industrial economy.
The technologies of the information and the knowledge empiezaron to clarifying to medium of the 90s that would transform the world of the work. A few technologies that relocate the work and allow his transnacionalidad breaking the limitations of the State – nation, and they give response to the hypermobility of the company network. It turns out to be at the time, the telework as alternative to the working space for the companies of production of services. But the work goes far beyond of the production, since it had imposed the industrialism, and the personal contact is returns essentially as generator of opportunities and the indispensable innovation for the new economy.
There is understood that there are no substitute but superposed solutions, and that the complexity and his management are intrinsic elements of this new reality.
The companies are changing and others believe themselves on new needs, while the spaces that receive them transform to give response to the changes that have created them. There is the need to rethink the working space shared it to be turned into space by reagent capable of understanding and answering to the new paradigm informacional. This way it is like, the conventional tipologías of offices, gone out of the hierarchical organization Taylorist, stop answering to the needs of the work in network on not having generated synergies, nor having motivated the innovation, nor having contributed to the interaction between workers and between companies. A characteristic of the culture of the innovation in the economy informacional is that, to weighing to be formed by individuals or small enterprises, the most innovative work produces to itself in network, unlike the industrial economy, Pekka Himanen8, and this network is not generated only across the digital connections but also by physical networks in working spaces inciting of connections.
Rethinking the working space.
There have been great the tipologías of new working spaces that have appeared from the 90s, some of them are simple ways of reducing costs for the companies or are answers to the mobility of his employees, whereas others are the result of a deep reflection on how network is employed at a company. León Emmanuelle9 describes three new working spaces: Combi-Office10, Hot-desking11, Just-in-Time Office12, three tipologías different that suppose a break between the individual and his traditional place of work as evolution of the previous working space.
Big companies since Google13 or Facebook14 find in the innovation in the working space a way of increasing the image of company and of attracting talent. To incorporate the leisure and the sport, the rest and the amusement in the same place of work allows them to develop the necessary connections between equipments with active spaces for the innovation and the creativity, but also it serves to the companies to support to his workers the maximum of time in his sites of work, increasing this way his productivity. They develop programs of incorporation, equality, diversity and education in different areas about the world as tools of development, integration and image.
At the same time there are born working spaces that rethink and answer to the social, cultural and economic changes of the company network of which they form a part and to the transnational companies to those who aspire to give service. New spaces for new companies and entrepreneurs who during the last 20 years have received numerous names, as incubators, hotel of companies, spaces network, multidisciplinary spaces or spaces transdisciplinares in network, until Coworking‘s name has managed to agglutinate them under the same concept of environment of work.
The Coworking is the name that gives him to a type of shared spaces of work between different professionals, who can be of different sectors and often related to Internet. Spaces that centralize resources diminishing costs and extending services, and they seek to generate the synergies necessary to turn into environments of opportunities.
The term Coworking15 was invented by Bernei DeKoven in the year 1999, but it was in the year 2009 when it was spread by Brad Neuberg in the HatFactory16 space in San Francisco, and of form more generalized with the later creation of the Citizen Space17, considered the first space coworking in The United States. The Deskmag18 magazine realizes every year a survey on Coworking’s spaces, that of 2012 shows a continued growth of this type of spaces, overcoming 245 % of growth in both last ones años19, with 2072 spaces in the whole world. Coworking’s spaces in Spain have different platforms where they gather in crowds as Comunidad Coworking20 or Coworking Spain21 that has just organized the “Coworking Spain Conference”22 in Barcelona, and the same year will organize the “Coworking European Conference”23 where the different experiences and Coworking’s spaces will expose and debate in Europe and the world. A growth and a quantity of congresses that reflect the magnitude of the implantation and the interest for these spaces.
Coworking’s spaces for the most part are integrated by small enterprises, entrepreneurs and liberal professionals, who have a capacity of limited investment, which leads them to looking for alternatives to the conventional offices. They are in the old spaces forgotten former ships of the obsolete industry, devoured by the growth of the cities, where they discover new potentials for the global cities. Potentials that had been used in the 50s in New York by students and artists, across the lofts, and that 40 years later began to redescubrirse and to turning into places for the birth of the new spaces for the industry of the knowledge. Singular spaces to generate new environments of work based on the collaborative innovation. An interesting information of the survey of Deskmag18 is that 79 % of the spaces is independent and only 5 % forms a part of a franchised network.
These buildings are urban regenerators, stir his environments into action exceeding his physical limits, revitalizing neighborhoods that had been remaining obsolete, attracting a new industry it cleans and with added value. New inhabitants join to these neighborhoods and believe an urban network of services that stir them into action. There appear new enterprising initiatives that have to coexist with the existing ones and to try to be revitalizing of the existing reality, and not to turn into the precedent of gentrification strategies24 that lead to the expulsion of his inhabitants to create another sterile city of his roots and inhabitants.
The companies, professionals and entrepreneurs, of different sectors and dimensions, look that his environments of work are alive spaces. Buildings capable of adapting to the change and to the needs of his residents, who believe a ecosistem network to collaborate internally and to compete externally, and who manage to be able to use the brand of the space to contribute to his needs of corporate image. The companies seek to share resources and to be able to increase the presentations of his spaces, this there allows them the generation of shared spaces thought about zero to satisfy the needs of companies and workers. A few environments of work that they believe to generate synergies between his residents, and to look for solutions of low cost to find the comfort and the domesticity in the environment of work. The space has to be an active element, which he contributes to the generation of value in order that the companies collaborate internally, motivating to finding the points that complement them and the form of which they add knowledge, and in order that they compete externally creating projects in network.
One seeks to generate a network of affinities and passions, which allows to develop together new ideas, but at the same time to support his independence and flexibility minimizing the difficulties of the fact of being companies of small size. These environments of work behave as a social network, of contacts and professional experiences, and are used by independent transnational professionals to find the networks of local professionals necessary for his implantation in a place, so much at the professional level like to relational level.
The Human Factor is the key element in these new working spaces, the person is the center over the work that it realizes. In the development of the person, the knowledge and his creative capacities and of innovation it is where the base is the economy of the knowledge. The working space cannot be a neutral and sterile element but an active element that has to reflect the worries and the passions of the person who uses it. They are spaces where the private thing and the public thing, the professional thing and the personal thing, are mixed when the person spends long days in the place of work. Spaces where the domesticity joins, the comfort of the private spaces allowing to give value to the own differences and to contribute them to the set. The domesticity enters the professional space to turn into an added value.
At the same time, the hourly flexibility does that the limits between the space and time of work and the private one they are fading away. The transnacionalidad of many plays the role of the equipments of work that the schedules are flexes isolated from the conventional inflexibility. The value of the prepared well youth and the equality of kinds, with the conciliation with the private life they discover new needs that this world of the work has to give response, as spaces for the children of the residents in Coworking’s space. The World Survey on Coworking of 2012 of Deskmag18 shows that the middle ages of the coworker are 34 years, with universitary education and a few income superior to the average, but also that still the men double to the women in his utilization. A model impregnated with the basic values of community, collaboration and productivity. Also they qualify the spaces of enterteining, nice, creative, inspiring, productibles, flexible and social. The benefits of the Coworking for 71 % are the increase of creativity and for 62 % an increase of his level of work. While, 68 % affirms that they center better in spite of what might be the opposite on having been inside spaces opened shared.
It is from the workers that the worries and the social commitments begin to form a part of the environment of work, involving his companies in the problematic ones of the community of which they form a part, and managing to incorporate them in the projects that they develop. The Coworking seeks to create an environment based on the conscience of community that goes beyond the creation of managerial value. The sustainability is one of his own values and to share resources already it is an intrinsically green element. The opened spaces have the aptitude to be able to absorb the growths and redistribute the decreases of the companies, adapting and optimizing to the maximum the space to the needs of every moment. These spaces locate in the own urban fabric and not in zones destined only to offices, which allows a reduction of displacements the work and to be important actors in the rehabilitation and dynamization of his urban environments. To generate the necessary synergies between the residents of Coworking’s buildings they believe spaces that allow the mutual knowledge, spaces of fret to generate new projects. Spaces of relation to be opened for professionals of other sectors and to share his experiences of success and failure, turning into places of learning. The Coworking helps to have a more wide vision of the complexity of the company and be able to find his needs, which are difficult to view in environments of work sectorizados or for professionals inside environments endogámicos. They are spaces like small terraces, green spaces, urban gardens, zones to eat or to do the coffee, or spaces less programmed as stairs and corridors, where the unforeseen meetings are provoked, but also they can be spaces thought for these types of meetings as special rooms for meetings and brainstorming. The shared work also demands to have access to a type of spaces of decompression, spaces to isolate, to study or to disconnect that they allow to find the sometimes necessary distance of the environment.
@Kubik, one example of space multidiciplinar in network
@kubik25 is a good example of new environments of work in Barcelona. It is a space that from his creation in the year 1994, 15 years before that was spreading Coworking’s name in San Francisco, has used as model for the implantation of other similar spaces. is a multidisciplinary space, container of economic activities for small organizations and autonomous workers ready to share physical resources and services. From his creation it has wanted to be the revitalizing one of the urban economy of the small enterprise, a physical and virtual place that forms an ecosystem based on the talent, the innovation and the energy. Them 900m2 of the building that occupies @Kubik in the center of Barcelona they are thought to provoke the major flow of information and possible knowledge under five beginning that mark the spirit and the management of the space:
– The life like premise
– The innovation like strategy
– The technology like opportunity
– The complexity like challenge
– The collaboration like dynamics
The building of three plants shelters more than 50 workers distributed in autonomous and companies from 3 to 15 members, or more than 15 workers. The space has a coordinator to activate the synergies between the resident companies and to manage the information of each one of the companies. The working spaces are formed across free sets separated by movable racks, with spaces of meetings opened and a closed room of meetings, a terrace and space of common coffee for the residents. An environment of innovative work for professionals of the company network.
The social transformation in which we are immersed is modifying our vital environment. If all our world is changing, if the company network is penetrating the limits imposed by the previous ones, if the new technologies allow to overcome the need presencial, at the time the forms of production and the environments of work also have to transform and to adapt to the new paradigm. It is in the working space where the principal values of the company network appear brighter transforming where, how and at what we are employed. The Coworking is one of the models of work capable of answering better to the transformation and the constant adjustment of the means of production to an environment and to a few changeable and uncertain needs. Definitively it will be in the culture of her innovation8 or the ethics of the creative work creativo26where we will see how we are adapting to a future without answers but abundance of questions for answering and challenges to turn actually.
Marc Chalamanch, architect.
Barcelona, november 2014.
1 The concepts of company network, informacionalismo, paradigm informacional are developed by Manuel Castells in the first chapter “Informacionalismo, networks and company network: a theoretical offer” of the book “La sociedad red: una visión global”, ISBN: 978-84-206-4784-5.
2 The concepts of denationalization, subnational scale, supranational scale, they are developed by Saskia Sassen in the first chapter “Elementos para una sociología de la globalización” of the book “Una sociología de la globalización” ISNB: 978-84-935432-6-6.
3 The concept of global cities is developed by Saskia Sassen in the third chapter “Global Cities: the local recovery and the social practices” of his book of “Una sociología de la globalización” ISNB: 978-84-935432-6-6.
4 Saskia Sassen develops in the fifth chapter “New global classes ” of his book of “Una sociología de la globalización” ISNB: 978-84-935432-6-6, the changes, importances and influences of the new global classes.
5 The Taylorism ( Term derived from the name of the American Frederick Winslow Taylor), in organization of the work, refers to the division of the different tasks of the process of production. It was a method of industrial organization, which end was to increase the productivity and to avoid the control that the worker could have in the times of production. It is related to the production in chain
6 Silicon Valley, Name that receives the south zone of the area of the San Francisco Bay, in the north of California, Estados Unidos. It lodges many of the major corporations of technology of the world and thousands of small enterprises in formation (start-ups). The name relates to all the business of high technology established in the zone; at present it is used as a metonime for the sector of high technology of The United States. + siliconvalleyhistorical.org + en.wikipedia.org
7 Benner, Chris. “The work in the company network: lessons of Silicon Valley” inside the book “La sociedad red: Una visión global” by Manuel Castells, ISBN: 978-84-206-4784-5. In this article there develop the concepts of flexible work and I use flexes the two related to the location, the company network and the differences in the work according to the social classes taking Silicon Valley as an example
7.1 Flexible work: is the motivation of the competitive dynamics and the labor guidelines that govern the industries of the knowledge and is indexed to the activities that the persons do while they take part in the processes of production. It is a type of work that he needs from constant learning and capacity of adjustment to new situations on the part of the worker inside a dynamic frame of which it forms a part.
7.2 Flexible employment: it refers to the nature of the relations between workers and businessman, represents the manifestation of a legal and institutional frame that favors the rapid change of contracts of work with low costs in terms of time, effort or profitability for the businessman. It represents for the worker different ways of being inside the labor market that is unstable (I work part-time, autonomous, etc.), it forms a of subsistence that determines the income and not the nature of his work. Chris Bennerr differentiates three forms of flexible employment: the atypical employment related to the non-conventional employment, the rotation of the work and the relations of employment with intermediaries between worker and businessman.
8 Pekka Himanen develops in the article of “The ethics hacker as culture of the age of the information” inside the book libro “La sociedad red: Una visión global” by Manuel Castells, ISBN: 978-84-206-4784-5, A reflection on his book “the ethics of hacker” and the concepts of labor, ethical culture, creativity, innovation, flexibility and time in the age of the information, bases for the construction of a new culture of the work and of the development. A culture that is narrowly tied to the reflection on new working spaces and with the work in equipments transdisciplinares and his more creative and innovative vision. Pekka Himanen proposes in the article the name of “culture of the innovation” to define d’una clearer way the values developed in the “ethics of the hacker”. Pekka Himanen emphasizes in his book “La ética de hacker”, eprints.rclis.org, a series of values as the Passion, the Freedom, the Social Conscience, the Truth, the Anti-corruption, the Fight against the Alienation of the Man, the Social Equality, the Free Access to the Information (free knowledge), the Social Value (recognition between similar), the Accessibility, the Activity, the Responsible Worry, the Curiosity, the Creativity, the Interest, which they are values that materialize also in the new working spaces as tools of conviviality and shared development.
9 “La gestion des espaces de travail, vecteur d’innovation? Le cas des bureaux virtuels d’accenture France” by Léon Emmanuelle article that develops the evolution towards new working spaces of the traditional sets of offices, describing three new working spaces: Combi-Office13, Hot-desking14, Just-in-Time Office15
10Combi-Office: It is a working space that combines two differentiated areas, on one hand small individual offices (4-6m2) for the isolation and the concentration, and another space that places around it that is formed as a great collective zone of work divided in equipments of work. In the book “The Eropean Office: Office design and national context” of J.Van Meel, 010 publishers, Rotterdam 2000, Quorum books ISBN 90 64503826, does to itself a good revision of different buildings that they gather this model of working space and describes his origin as Swedish. With the different examples of offices it is possible to understand perfectly the typology of space that the office model generates Combi-Office.
11 Hot-Desking: It is defined as a common space divided in different spaces opened for a limited number of persons (approximately fifty) who do not have a predetermined site of work and are a working space for short periods of time. Working space is formed by a common space divided between one or two dozens of offices opened with a maximum of fifty persons in the whole space. The utilization of the working space is like that of the libraries, the first one that comes is the one that it has right to the site of work. In the book “The flexible workplace: a sourcebook of information and research“ by Christine Avery, Diane Zabel, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001, ISNB: 156720189x, Hot-desking’s different spaces are described and one recounts to the origin of the word to a term that the soldiers of the U.S. Navy was using to describe the berths that the sailors were using in different shifts. In the Book “New Demographics New Workspace: Office Design for the Changing Workforce” by Jeremy Myerson, Jo-anne Bichard, Alma Elrich, ISBN-13: 978-0566088544, it incorporates a study of the pros and cons of this type of working space that Welcoming Workplace can become condensed in this graph, 2008.
12 Just-In-Time Office: It is a system of office management for certain periods, the users can rent spaces of work or of meeting according to his temporary needs. In the Book “On the Job: Design and the American Office, Part 3” by Donald Albrecht, Chrysanthe Broikos, ISBN-13: 978-1568982410, there is described the history of the evolution of the working spaces and a tour is done by the different tipologías of spaces inside the frame of The United States, and they give themselves office examples Just-in-time. This one is a system that is exploited by office chains as Regus, and is efficient enough for professionals with great mobility that clients need to work and to receive in the city where they are.
13 Working space in Google. With offices in the whole world in his web they seek to attract the talent in the whole world with an image of company absolutely different from the one that us had the industrialism used, the working space and an opened philosophy are one of the manera of explaining the company. In this web they explain his policies and philosophy of incorporation, diversity, education and culture in the environment of the work, some of these programs and benefits that centre specifically on the creation of an inclusive environment for all our users of Google. Assistance for the adoption, day-care centers, the rooms of the mother, maternity / paternity, Bucks Baby-unión, New group of support for infantile parents, Centros in Mountain View, Programs Pairs, Policies of housing (included those of visual form, the mobility and auditory disability Googlers), Transgénero and Support Labor Transition.
14 Working space in Facebook. In his web they explain how one is employed at his offices, the executives in tie have turned into creative and enterteining young persons, for spaces that believe equipment and they value the ideas, the results and the talent.
15Coworking: Coworking‘s exact definition is confused because it is a working space in constant reinvention but in the Wikipedia one tries to explain his origins and to give examples of Coworking’s spaces in the world.
16HatFactory, Located in 801 Minnesota *8 San Francisco, CA 94107, was the space from which Brad Neuberg started spreading the term Coworking, in his origins it was a loft where they were working and living through three freelands and was opened for others during the day for other freelands dedicated to technological developments. The space still works as Coworking’s space.
17Citizen Space, Located in 425 2nd st, Suite 100 San Francisco, CA 94107, was the first space that really spread with Coworking’s name, was founded by Tara Hunt, Chris Messina y Brad Neuberg.
18Deskmag Magazine dedicated to the coworking.
19 Coworking de Deskmag polls spaces, this magazine realizes every year the biggest of the world on Coworking’s spaces, that of 2012 was the third one that realizes this magazine and was realized on 2007 polled of the whole world. Information that have been announced of the third survey Desmag 2013. Information also interesting of the second survey Desmag 2012.
20 Comunidad Coworking: It is a platform that Connects Coworking’s spaces, with users interested in sharing a working space in Spain. It has as aim promote the culture Coworking, sensitizing to the company with this current based in sharing and adding up in the same professional environment. Besides a platform online edit a magazine COgrafía, the first one in his kind on coworking that tries to offer a nearby and current vision on the spaces coworking that are arising in Spain.
21 Coworking Spain: Coworking Spain is a platform of spaces of coworking and of coworkers where they can find spaces of coworking, find coworkers that are in centers of coworking working and to read news of coworking in our magazine.
22 Coworking European Conference: Coworking’s European Congress that will celebrate the Noviembre 11-12-13 2013 in Barcelona
23Coworking Spain Conference: Coworking’s Spanish congress that has been celebrated past On May 24-25, 2013 in Barcelona
24 Gentrification: It is a process of urban transformation in the one that the original population of a sector or damaged neighborhood and with pauperismo is progressively displaced by other one of a major acquisitive level simultaneously that is renewed.
25 @kubik Multidisciplinary space, it is Coworking’s space placed in c/Luis Antúnez nº6 08006 Barcelona, in this space of Coworking, pioneer in Barcelona, professionals and companies have happened as Atrápalo, Javier Creus, Alfons Cornella, and nowadays residents as Luis Fernández Hermana, Archikubik or Photographic social visión between more than 50 companies and resident professionals in the building in every moment. Between the professions that they use in these moments @kubik there are graphical designers, translators, architects, jewelers, postphotography, direction of art, specialists in networks and TIC, scientific journalists, digital journalists, scientific communication, advertising creativity, interioristas, companies of webs, photographers, Agencia of advertising, Associations, NGOs, international cooperation.
26 Richard Florida, in the book”The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life“, ISBN-13: 978-0465024766, There uses the concept of “creative class”, developing the concept of “ethics of the creative work” that corresponds to the concept that it names Pekka Himanen11 is denominated “Hacker”.
Es co-fundador del estudio de arquitectura y urbanismo ARCHIKUBIK Arquitecto y Urbanista licenciado por la ETSA de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Máster universitario «Sociedad de la Información y el Conocimiento» en la UOC (Universidad Abierta de Catalunya).
Su investigación académica, apoyada en su experiencia profesional, va dirigida al análisis de la transformación de la ciudad con sus actores, problemáticas y retos en la Sociedad Red.