A condition emphasized in Il Redentore’s design is that it reaches the unit of set by means of a skilful disposition of autonomous parts. This quality that demonstrates in the tracing of the plant, in the succession amalgamated of volumes and in the composition stratified of front, answers to the exact balance that Palladio reaches in his maturity proyectual. Every part has a root compositiva own, subordinated to a longitudinal order that allows the attainment of a homogeneous space.
The church had his origin in a declaration of the senate of Venice, which proposes his construction to venerate with an annual courtship the end of an epidemic that killed more than 40.000 Venetians. The building had to harmonize with the slanted sight that offers the area to the Piazza San Marcos. For this reason there was asked Palladio a project of centralized plant, – that was rejected because some members of the church were rejecting the pagan origin of the form-, and other one in Latin cross, which was the one that finally the authorities approved. Though it answers to this form, Palladio’s project connects a rectangular plant with a centralized.
The first section of the building it occupies a rectangular ship extended with three chapels to every side. There are no lateral ships, the chapels are opened in the wall tunnel vaults on the wall. Palladio rejects the medieval tradition of supports by means of columns and applies a technology of the Roman antiquity on having supported the vault by means of molded walls. A rhythmic series of Corinthian applied columns supports the constant cornice that gives him unit to the space. The basements of the columns have a minor height to the habitual thing not to obstruct the sight and to support the unitary character of the ship. Above, windows under vaults bathe of light the space. At the end of the tour, a column located to every side of the opening reconstructs the rectangular form of the ship and annotates the step to the following space.
The second section has the characteristics of a space of circular plant though it is a question of a structure triconque. It is a cruise that supports a dome. In this space the platform is located. To left side and right of the axis, the wall takes a semicircular form. The third side of the triconque is a wall screen constituted by four columns that Palladio interposes to limit the space of the choir without breaking the spatial unit of the set.
The third section virtually separated from the space of the temple, is more modest and enjoys major privacy. It supports the width of the ship, but it is lower. The lateral walls join in the end in semicircle supporting the axial hierarchy of the space.
Externally, the progression of volumes obtains a morphologic indissoluble unit. The parts are shaped plastically avoiding any contrast. The exterior wall of brick is decorated by applied columns. The buttresses raised on the ceiling of the chapels support a rhythmic order up to coming to the dome, which is helped by two towers to every side to heighten the unitary character of the composition.
The front is a composition cuasi pictorial of superposed planes. The principal front this one applied against a rectangular attic. There contains another minor who frames the door of access. Behind, the lower and broader one follows the space of the chapels. In a plane behind and below the attic, two half frontons repeat the form of the buttresses. The whole front rests on a podium that is projected towards out in the whole width of the ship to develop the space of transition.
Palladio conceives a building with an unpublished dynamic tension. The criterion of secuencialidad that exhibits the volumetric disposition, the interior espacialidad, the disposition of the plant, the criterion of functionality and the composition of front constitute a lesson compositiva that emphasizes Palladio’s architecture of the rest of his contemporary ones.
Marcelo Gardinetti . architect
La Plata. March 2018