El hombre es un ser de su tiempo. Nace y vive dentro de los márgenes determinados de un proceso histórico. Pertenece a una etapa con vivencias y experimentaciones propias, concretas y específicas. Ante el pasado es un ser de reflexión y análisis, con problemas distintos que atender y nuevas incógnitas que despejar de un panorama en ritmo evolutivo. Su existir equivale a la expresión de un todo dentro de un minuto especial de universo. Es un tiempo y un espacio humanos, sobre un semejante tiempo y un semejante espacio cosmológicos.
The contemporary world brings to the field of the history a fundamental change in all the domains of the being, of to know and of to act. Before the falsely romantic and sentimental attitude of previous stages, the man returns to discover from new planes the essential balance of the nature. Free of purely emotional manifestations it finds a new sense of sincerity. It leaves the exterior forms in his succinctly epidermal and decorative expression to take them as products of a bottom in communication with the substance. He forgets the academic conventions of the quite social one organized into a hierarchy in simple attitude of surface, and there is revealed haido of a vital distress firmly metaphysical. That is to say, it returns to be as human basic value.
Between the yesterday world and the today world, there has been established the origin of the deepest experience of the history; the genesis of a new man and the production of his message. The art, as way of integral manifestation and more own experience of the human nature, summarizes and they integrate almost his totality the communication of the contemporary being and it is realized to define it. In him there developed the whole spiritual and material process, already not as the objective and narrative history of the simple one to pass of procedure, but as the accomplishment carefully elaborated of these processes, for the attitude of the man opposite to them. The art does not express a form in yes or for yes, but the whole of an experience humanizes before the essential values that integrate the dynamical field of the being.
The revolution is initiated to big historical distances by strange figures on having felt of his times, but it manages to be solved only in the second half of the XIXth century. The post-romantic art, it is not the completion and closing of a foreign and opposite process like current conception; it is the beginning of a new stage. In the resolutions and strange worries that continued the age of the romanticism, there affected Manet, Cézanne, Debussy, Ravel, Rimbaud and so many people others placed in the plane divisional of two antagonistic sensibilities, looking for the elements and in certain way the functional axes that then would form a definitive attitude across the works of Picasso, Bracque, Grey, Joyce, Gilde, Vallejo, Archipencko, Maillol, Stravinsky, Bartok, Berg, Claudel, O’Neill and the rest of already specifically contemporary figures.
The architecture, as art of synthesis, product of all the basic and basic concepts of a time across forms and volumes, has been in the current process-, the last one of the aesthetic values to be revolutionized. Nevertheless, this delay has obeyed a categorical reason of essence. It was necessary that the metamorphosis was fulfilling fullly in all the attainable planes the man, in order that the architecture was making concrete in yes, the total formula of a new time. They had passed case two hundred years of falsification and copy of the past. The styles of the XVIIIth and XIXth century were not but arbitrary combinations and perfectly irresponsible alterations of the architectural ancient essences. An anti-art; in that the decorative thing, the incidental thing, the not transcendental thing and the superficial thing, they used as base to vague mystifications, as concept of a statism objetivado, emptily as interior and as resolutions. Against this subject matter of exteriorismos and this adulteration of ideas and concepts, the current architecture reacts violently. The problem resides always to the interior. His exposition and his elimination of mysteries are translated in a sense verified in the space, only as way of enunciating the opposing formula and of defining in him to the essences. Of there the funcionalismo of the today architecture. Of there his existence to the margin of predetermined academic styles. Of there his projection towards the future, as meeting of a concrete total manifestation, departing from the bases and expressing the intimate substances.
The contemporary architecture is a fundamental index of a time. It summarizes the factors of a new universal concept. It has returned to meet the total man there being liberated of the hunger fraction that mystifies her.
The effort of creators like Le Corbusier, Gropius, Goes der Rohe, Niemeyer, Neutral, Lloyd Wright and other current architects, it is realized already in a time and in a space given, as fundamental essence and origin of the contemporary being.
Unfortunately Peru – more than any other country than the world or chance next to those who form the universal rear-, it remains indifferent, without major worry or initiative, to the margin of the transcendent acts of the contemporary revolution. The man is an expression of his time. It must summarize in yes and in his work, anyone that it should be, the anxiety, the worries, the problems and the resolutions of his stage. In Peru, we must affirm it, the disorientation and the apathy take alarming contours. The artists who must be drivers and guides of generation, get lost still in a folklore subject matter (narrative and succinctly objetivada) or they evolve at the wrong time following the fingerprint of ancient and already overcome revolutionaries. One that another contemporary and essential, isolated figure and probably lost in our aesthetic panorama, it does not mean absolutely anything in total function for Peru, as people and as idea. The revolutions are displacements and evolution of masses, not attitude of specifically individual beings. A man can never be a revolutionary but a revolution.
As for our architectural problem, it is not necessary to allude even to individualities. The efforts of some few architects for dignifying the architecture in Peru, have remained annulled before happening, for the total incomprehension and the existence of arbitrary courts to the security of the architectural adulteration.
To use new materials and to arrange them in agreement to a ” new style “, it is not to realize current architecture. Much less, to combine aspects of architecture born in previous epochs on the same soil, though this alchemy and strange amalgams take prefixes of supposed innovation. With deep pain but at the same time with a fecund hope in the future, we must declare that in Peru and in relation to the universal contemporary panorama, architecture does not exist. In our way, this one has remained inalterable to any reinnovating worry, becoming exhausted in a tenacious and absurd regime of mystification, where the education and to be realized architectural they were thinking about living when actually they were dying in every obstinate imitation. To more than 30 years of the birth of a rational and living architecture, in Peru this art remains reduced to mere trade of applying styles. That of the “Greek – Roman one” or of the “Renaissance academician”, we have moved our preferences to the so called “colonial one”, it neither adds up nor reduces absolutely anything to the specific problem of overcoming the stage of an architecture as simple application of stylistic elements.
Our conscious one with regard to the generations who were employed at previous stages of the history to achieve an authentic expression of his concepts, and our concrete and categorical affirmation on a man takes to us to the accomplishment of an artistic and specially architectural movement, that in this manifest it does sincere and free expression of his beginning. We will work for a current architecture, as formula of the man re-discovered in the contemporary thing.
We will fight to eliminate all the hobbles in opposition to this basic exigency of the time.
We will form an architectural – social conscience identified to the needs of the new inhabitant of the human thing.
We will give his new residence to the new man. The functional, authentic residence, formula of the essential postulates of the epoch, frees of any style and incidental anecdote.
Our movement, under the denominative one “AGRUPACIÓN ESPACIO” it does the called one to all the architects who sit in yes the manifestation of a new being, and extends this invitation to all the artists who work in agreement with the firm essences of the epoch, in the conviction of the same common end and the same longing of accomplishment it humanizes.
Lima, 15 de mayo de 1947.
ARCHITECTS AND PUPILS OF ARCHITECTURE
Luis Miró Quesada, Paul Linder, Adolfo Córdova V., José Polar Zegarra, José M. Sakr S., Carlos Williams, Gabriel Tizón Ferreyros, Juan F. Benites, Miguel Bao Payba, Mario Gilardi, Enrique Oyague M., Roberto S. Wakeham, Oscar Vargas Méndez, Luis Vásquez, Wenceslao Sarmiento, Luis Dorich, Renato Suito, Eduardo Neira Alva, Jorge Garrido Lecca, Ricardo de J. Malachowski Benavides, Alberto Seminario, Guillermo Proaño, Luis Maurer F., Fernando Sánchez Griñán P., Ramón Venegas Deacón, Jorge de los Ríos, Gerardo Lecca del O., Teodoro Scheuch, Henry Biber, Juan José Dávila L., Hilde Scheuch, Raúl Morey, Alberto H. Aranzaens.
ADHERENTS TO THE MANIFEST
Samuel Pérez Barreto, César de la Jara, Xavier Abril, Jorge Eduardo Eielson, Javier Sologuren, Sebastián Salazar Bondy, Fernando de Szyszlo, Jorge Piqueras, Raúl Deustua, Carlos Alejandro Espinoza, Emilio Herman S., Leopoldo Chariarse, Miguel Grau Schmidt, Joao Luiz Pereira, Luis León Herrera.
NOTE. During the preliminary meetings, from production of the manifest and of agreement to a program, the “AGRUPACIÓN ESPACIO” has determined the following immediate activities::
1.- Accomplishment of a series of intimate chats on different problems and questions brings over of the world and the contemporary being.
2.- Structuración of a plan of conferences in places opened of this capital at the expense of teachers and specialists in different fields and categories of the knowledge. Between the titles of these conferences they figure: “Current Panorama of the Art”, “Path of the Architecture in Peru”, “Panorama of the Contemporary Philosophy”, “Concept of the Regionalism in the Architecture”, “Current Evolution of the Painting”, “The Structure in the Current Architecture “, etc.
3.- Planning of a cycle of radial chats concerning the idea: ” The Man and the Contemporary Art “.
Fernando Freire Forga · Doctor Architect
Lima · august 2012 · Author of the Blog La Forma Moderna en Latinoamérica
Fernando Freire Forga nace en Lima el 21 de marzo de 1977. Entre los años 1994 y 2000 realiza estudios de arquitectura en la Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas en la misma ciudad. En 1999 obtiene el primer premio en el Concurso a nivel nacional organizado por PROCOBRE-PERÚ con la tesis: Edificio Automatizado de Oficinas: “Usos del Cobre en la Arquitectura”.
Ha realizado estudios de Doctorado sobre Arquitectura Moderna en la ETSAB, Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Barcelona en la Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, España. Actualmente, se encuentra inmerso en el desarrollo de trabajos de recopilación e investigación de Arquitectura Moderna en el Perú. Es docente de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y se desenvuelve como proyectista de manera independiente.