The studies related to the Modern Form in the One-family Housing have served me for the project formulation along my career. After analyzing a great number of one-family housings, for the production of this article, I have developed a test in relation to the knowledge acquired on the Court Houses , which have been put into practice in the majority of housings projected in my study.
The court in the housings appellant of analysis has turned into an element for my offers. Since I have analytical memory, it was in the habit of interpreting the court as an element “hub cap”, the fabulous vestibules of our colonial architecture captivated my attention and the houses he was identifying them like “more agreeable” depending on the court, the gardens and his decoration. After the studies of modern architecture I identified to the court as a determinant element for the spatial distribution. My first studies of houses court go back to the House Court proposed by the architect Jose Luis Sert for Chimbote’s Regulatory Plan at the end of the decade of 1940, housings that, according to Sert, were narrowly tied to the local customs. The principal revenue was taking directly to the central court, the same one that servia to distribute all the spaces of the housing. A modern housing, the result was suing the being a universal solution, nevertheless the placement of an adjacent space to the kitchen for the upbringing of minor animals was allowing to guess the local customs and, inside my professional criterion, the architectural identity was demonstrated in the modern architecture across the function, which was adjusting to the requirements of particular users with customs different from the international known area.
After coming closer Sert’s work, with Chimbote’s Regulatory Plan, I met obliged to deepen the studies on his work, being interested particularly in his housings designed in the later years. It turned out to me interesting to read in his writings that Chimbote’s Regulatory Plan, specifically the house court, influenced considerably in his later works. The House Sert in Cambridge is one of the most out-standing housings influenced by the studies for Chimbote. And for my to deal represents a proposed very well elaborated for the development of the modern architecture in the item of one-family housing, specially to the calls “court house”.
My interest for the houses court continues and I happened to study the houses court of Mies van der Rohe, where the utilization of the esvástica allowed him spatial solutions in plant very well successful, to such a point that the privacy of the spaces was allowing to do without the doors for the bedrooms.
The houses court proposed by the architect Arne Jacobsen, the houses court proposed for “Case Study Houses”, you change of the houses of the architect Coderch, Alvar Aalto’s country house in Muratzalo, between others, they served to nourish my knowledge in relation to this type of housings.
After abounding in the investigation I achieved court identified in the practice of the houses two forceful and determinant solutions: 01.-The utilization of the court like principal element in the spatial distribution and 02.-The spatial evident distribution to achieve courts that complement the espacialidad of the housing.
For example: The house court proposed by Sert for Chimbote and the distribution of the same house in Cambridge, they correspond to the utilization of the court as element of spatial distribution, whereas the house court proposed by Mies van der Rohe, and the Catasús house of the architect Jose Antonio Coderch (for mentioning a couple of examples) they correspond to a spatial distribution that they have as purpose determine and achieve divide the land in courts or “spaces opened” that shape the architectural design of the housing. The following image corresponds to the plant of the house Catasus in Sitges, 1956.
In one of the works realized for the doctorate The Modern Form, there was in use the Catasús House as distribution reference in a lot of 25 m.x 25 m. An interesting offer of house being achieved court, where the spatial distribution was dividing the free areas in four courts: The Court of Revenue, The Social Court, The Court of the Bedrooms and the court or window box between the social zones and the kitchen, the latter allowing to achieve a major transparency in the environments and for ende a natural unsurpassable lighting.
Fernando Freire Forga · Doctor Architect
Lima · july 2013 · Author of the Blog La Forma Moderna en Latinoamérica
* The images were obtained of:
Fernando Freire Forga nace en Lima el 21 de marzo de 1977. Entre los años 1994 y 2000 realiza estudios de arquitectura en la Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas en la misma ciudad. En 1999 obtiene el primer premio en el Concurso a nivel nacional organizado por PROCOBRE-PERÚ con la tesis: Edificio Automatizado de Oficinas: “Usos del Cobre en la Arquitectura”.
Ha realizado estudios de Doctorado sobre Arquitectura Moderna en la ETSAB, Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Barcelona en la Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, España. Actualmente, se encuentra inmerso en el desarrollo de trabajos de recopilación e investigación de Arquitectura Moderna en el Perú. Es docente de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y se desenvuelve como proyectista de manera independiente.